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Health, equity and the post-2015 agenda: raising the voices of marginalized communities

After more than a year of global consultations, the United Nations convenes to agree on a broad outline of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals and begin a year-long state negotiation process. Concerned that the voices of marginalized communities are not being sufficiently sought out and listened to, the international research consortium 'Goals and Governance for Global Health' (Go4Health) has undergone a series of health-focused consultations in marginalized communities in nine countries to seek their views on their essential health needs, accountability, and more. Many of the results and associated lessons are being published in this new thematic series from the International Journal for Equity in Health entitled ""Health, equity and the post-2015 agenda: raising the voices of marginalized communities," guest edited by Ana Lorena Ruano, Peter Hill, and Eric Friedman.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-11-14

Incorporating Intersectionality in Evaluation of Policy Impacts on Health Equity

www.sophie-project.eu

Socio-economic position (including indicators of social stratification and social class) is the most studied form of social inequality when describing health inequalities and analysing policies to tackle them (CSDH, 2008). However, there are other social relations that generate health inequalities such as, for example, gender, ethnicity or migration status (Solar and Irwin 2007). These axes, or dimensions of social inequality, can be seen as intertwined power relations interacting among each other in creating health inequalities. Therefore, not only research on health inequalities but also the design of policies and the study of the impact of a policy on health equity needs to take into consideration all these dimensions, as well as their intersections (Schulz and Mullings 2006). This guide aims to raise this issue, by introducing central concepts of intersectionality theory and questions to consider in an intersectionality-based policy analyses and by showing examples of how one-dimensional analyses of population health and health inequalities can mask evidence of true health effects.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-11-07

Towards a Health Inequalities Audit Process. Process and learning

www.health-inequalities.eu/HEALTHEQUITY/EN/projects/equity_a

Towards a Health Inequalities Audit Process. Process and learning A Health Inequalities Audit is a useful process that can be used by professionals with a good grasp of the health inequalities agenda and of public health. It can be used to facilitate a discussion on policies and programmes both within and outside the health sector, by those with an interest in promoting action on health inequalities across populations. It is a non-legislative process which is used in agreement with other policy areas to assist in reviewing the impacts of policies and their implementation on health impacts and their distribution. Equity Action undertook Health Inequalities Audits on two policy areas, air quality and nutrition and obesity, although the initial process identified 5 potential areas: Air quality, child poverty, nutrition, Patient rights – cross border health care, and tobacco control - which were then screened to identify the final two. We pre-screened five policy areas by a desk review of policies, evidence, and the potential impact of the policy on health inequalities, and then undertook a further screening of the remaining three policy areas by face-to-face dialogue with both the EC health inequalities leads, and the air quality, nutrition and tobacco policy leads. While it is helpful to use the skills associated with health impact assessment, it is within the competency of public health professionals to manage the process at least up the scoping phase. Beyond that phase we found it useful to have specialist research commissioned on air-qual ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-11-07

Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2014

www.undp.org

Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2014 El Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2014 “Sostener el Progreso Humano: reducir vulnerabilidades y construir resiliencia” analiza dos conceptos que están interconectados a la vez y son inmensamente importantes para asegurar el progreso del desarrollo humano. En este Informe se argumenta a favor de la necesidad de mejorar de manera sostenible las capacidades de los individuos y las sociedades con el fin de reducir estas vulnerabilidades persistentes, muchas de ellas estructurales y ligadas al ciclo de vida. El progreso debe centrarse en el fomento de la resiliencia del desarrollo humano. Aunque existe un amplio debate acerca del significado de resiliencia, nuestro énfasis se centra en la resiliencia humana, que busca garantizar la solidez de las opciones, actuales y futuras, de las personas y su capacidad para lidiar y adaptarse a acontecimientos adversos. El Informe actual muestra que las tendencias globales en general son positivas y que el progreso continúa. No obstante, se están perdiendo vidas y se están socavando medios de subsistencia y desarrollo por motivo de catástrofes y crisis naturales o inducidas por los seres humanos. Sin embargo, estas fatalidades no son inevitables. Mientras que toda sociedad es vulnerable al riesgo, algunas sufren mucho menos daños y se recuperan más rápidamente que otras cuando la adversidad golpea. Este Informe se pregunta por qué esto es así y por primera vez en un IDHglobal, considera la vulnerabilidad y la resiliencia a través de una le ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-10-23

Equity-focused knowledge translation: a framework for "reasonable action" on health inequities

Objectives:To identify gaps in procedural approaches to knowledge translation and outline a more relational approach that addresses health inequities based on creating collaborative environments for reasonable action.Methods:A literature review encompassing approaches to critical inquiry of the institutional conditions in which knowledge is created combined with a process for encouraging reflexive professional practice provide the conceptual foundation for our approach, called equity-focused knowledge translation (EqKT).Results:The EqKT approach creates a matrix through which teams of knowledge stakeholders (researchers, practitioners, and policymakers) can set common ground for taking collaborative action on health inequities.Conclusions:Our approach can contribute to the call by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Healths for more reasonable action on health inequities by being incorporated into numerous public health settings and processes. Further steps include empirical applications and evaluations of EqKT in real world applications.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-10-23

Monitoring health inequality: An essential step for achieving health equity

Monitoring health inequality: An essential step for achieving health equity This booklet communicates fundamental concepts about the importance of health inequality monitoring, using text, figures, maps and videos. Following a brief summary of main messages, four general principles pertaining to health inequalities are highlighted:1. health inequalities are widespread;2. health inequality is multidimensional;3. benchmarking puts changes in inequality in context and 4. health inequalities inform policy. Each of the four principles is accompanied by figures or maps that illustrate the concept, a question that is posed as an extension and application of the material, and a link to a video, demonstrating the use of interactive visuals to answer the question. The videos are accessible online by scanning a QR code (a URL is also provided). The next section of the booklet outlines essential steps forward for achieving health equity, including the strengthening and equity orientation of health information systems through data collection, data analysis and reporting practices. The use of visualization technologies as a tool to present data about health inequality is promoted, accompanied by a link to a video demonstrating how health inequality data can be presented interactively. Finally, the booklet announces the upcoming State of inequality report, and refers readers to the Health Equity Monitor homepage on the WHO Global Health Observatory.The accompanying video clips illustrate fundamental concepts of monitoring health inequality and can be foundhere.

Publicado en ODS2014-10-14

Tackling Health Inequities: from concepts to practice

Tackling Health Inequities: from concepts to practice Despite remarkable health gains, inequities persist between and within countries in the WHO European Region, and Sweden is no exception. Actions to effectively tackle health inequities need to be carried out at all levels of government. Regions have a key role to play because they are close to their populations and have the power and skills to develop efficient public health policies that may help to reduce health disparities by changing the distribution of the social determinants of health. This report describes the process that the Region Västra Götaland, Sweden followed to mainstream health equity in its regional health plan; this resulted in the adoption of the Action Plan for Health Equity in Region Västra Götaland. This publication give an account of not only the factors that made the Action Plan possible but also the obstacles encountered and the measures taken to overcome them. The report illustrates how the whole-of-government and whole-of-society approaches central to the new European health policy, Health 2020, were implemented in a real setting.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-10-14

Inequality in the long run

This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future.

TipoRevisión
Publicado en ODS2014-10-03

Social Determinants of Mental Health

www.instituteofhealthequity.org

Social Determinants of Mental Health This report was written by the UCL Institute of Health Equity and published by the World Health Organization and the Gulbenkian Foundation.Its key messages are as follows:- Mental health and many common mental disorders are shaped to a great extent by the social, economic, and physical environments in which people live.- Social inequalities are associated with increased risk of many common mental disorders.- Taking action to improve the conditions of daily life from before birth, during early childhood, at school age, during family building and working ages, and at older ages provides opportunities both to improve population mental health and to reduce the risk of those mental disorders that are associated with social inequalities.- While comprehensive action across the life course is needed, scientific consensus is considerable that giving every child the best possible start will generate the greatest societal and mental health benefits.- Action needs to be universal: across the whole of society, and proportionate to need in order to level the social gradient in health outcomes.- This paper highlights effective actions to reduce risk of mental disorders throughout the life course, at the community level and at the country level. It includes environmental, structural, and local interventions. Such actions to prevent mental disorders are likely to promote mental health in the population.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-09-30

New evidence-based tools to reduce health inequities in Europe

www.euro.who.int

While health indicators have improved overall in the WHO European Region, this improvement is unevenly distributed within and between the 53 Member States and between population groups within them. As a result, avoidable inequalities are increasing in the Region. For example, the gap in life expectancy between the European countries with the  highest and lowest is 17 years for men and 12 years for women. The 2008 economic crisis has exacerbated this trend, but appropriate policy intervention can reverse it. The WHO Regional Office for Europe and the European Commission jointly carried out a project to produce policy guidelines and tools for addressing health inequalities. Its results provide policy-makers with evidence on how policies affect socially determined health inequities and guidance on what actions can be taken to improve health equity. The project has produced several tools for use in pursuing the two priority goals of the European policy framework, Health 2020: reducing health inequities and improving governance for health. They comprise interactive online atlases and a series of policy briefs.

TipoGuías de Recursos y Directorios
Publicado en ODS2014-07-01

The science of inequality

www.sciencemag.org

This special issue uses these fresh waves of data to explore the origins, impact, and future of inequality around the world. Archaeological and ethnographic data are revealing how inequality got its start in our ancestors . New surveys of emerging economies offer more reliable estimates of people's incomes and how they change as countries develop . And in the past decade in developed capitalist nations, intensive effort and interdisciplinary collaborations have produced large data sets, including the compilation of a century of income data and two centuries of wealth data into the World Top Incomes Database (WTID).

TipoRevistas - texto completo
Publicado en ODS2014-06-02

The Financial and Economic Crises and Their Impact On Health and Social Well-Being

baywood.com/intro/TFA_Look.pdf

This volume provides a timely collection of the most germane studies and commentaries on the complex links between recent changes in national economies, welfare regimes, social inequalities, and population health. Drs. Vicente Navarro and Carles Muntaner have selected 24 representative articles, organized around six themes, from the widely read pages of the International Journal of Health Services (2006-2013)—articles that not only challenge conventional approaches to population health but offer new insights and robust results that critically advance public health scholarship. Part I applies a social-conflict perspective to better understand how political forces, processes, and institutions precede and give rise to social inequalities, economic instability, and population health. The need to politicize dominant (neoliberal) ideologies is emphasized, given its explanatory power to elucidate unequal power relations. The next four parts focus on the health impacts of growing inequalities and economic decline on government services and transfers (Part II); labor markets and employment conditions (Part III); welfare states and regimes (Part IV); and social class relations (Part V). Part VI advocates for a more politically engaged approach to population health and presents alternative solutions to achieving egalitarian outcomes, which, in turn, improve health and reduce health inequalities. Taken together, the works in this volume reflectIJHS'scollective commitment to pub ...

TipoLibros electrónicos
Publicado en ODS2014-04-22

Report on World Social Situation 2013: Inequality Matters

www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/world-social-sit

Published by the Division for Social Policy and Development (DSPD) of UN DESA, the report places special focus on policy and disadvantaged social groups, in addition to examining the consequences of high inequality. The Report examines recent inequality trends and analysese their social, economic and political impacts, highlighting new developments and paying particular attention to the situation of disadvantaged  social groups. It shows that inequality not only matters to people living in poverty, but also for the overall well-being of society. The Report illustrates that growing inequalities can be arrested by integrated policies that are universal in principle yet pay particular attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations. It reminds world leaders that, in addressing inequalities, policy matters.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-24

The political origins of health inequity: prospects for change

www.thelancet.com

Despite large gains in health over the past few decades, the distribution of health risks worldwide remains extremely and unacceptably uneven. Although the health sector has a crucial role in addressing health inequalities, its efforts often come into conflict with powerful global actors in pursuit of other interests such as protection of national security, safeguarding of sovereignty, or economic goals. This report examines power disparities and dynamics across a range of policy areas that affect health and that require improved global governance: economic crises and austerity measures, knowledge and intellectual property, foreign investment treaties, food security, transnational corporate activity, irregular migration, and violent conflict.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
ArchivoPIIS0140673613624071.pdf (204 views)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-03

The political origins of health inequity: prospects for change

www.thelancet.com

Despite large gains in health over the past few decades, the distribution of health risks worldwide remains extremely and unacceptably uneven. Although the health sector has a crucial role in addressing health inequalities, its efforts often come into conflict with powerful global actors in pursuit of other interests such as protection of national security, safeguarding of sovereignty, or economic goals. This report examines power disparities and dynamics across a range of policy areas that affect health and that require improved global governance: economic crises and austerity measures, knowledge and intellectual property, foreign investment treaties, food security, transnational corporate activity, irregular migration, and violent conflict.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
ArchivoPIIS0140673613624071.pdf (173 views)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-03

The political origins of health inequity: prospects for change

www.thelancet.com

Despite large gains in health over the past few decades, the distribution of health risks worldwide remains extremely and unacceptably uneven. Although the health sector has a crucial role in addressing health inequalities, its efforts often come into conflict with powerful global actors in pursuit of other interests such as protection of national security, safeguarding of sovereignty, or economic goals. This report examines power disparities and dynamics across a range of policy areas that affect health and that require improved global governance: economic crises and austerity measures, knowledge and intellectual property, foreign investment treaties, food security, transnational corporate activity, irregular migration, and violent conflict.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
ArchivoPIIS0140673613624071.pdf (181 views)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-03

"If you could do one thing..." Nine local actions to reduce health inequalities

www.britac.ac.uk

The British Academy presents a collection of opinion pieces on health inequalities from leading social scientists. Each of the authors has written an article, drawing on the evidence base for their particular area of expertise, identifying one policy interventionthat they think local authorities could introduce to improve the health of the local population and reduce health inequalities. The report seeks to help local policymakers improve the health of their communities by presenting evidence from the social sciences that can help reduce inequalities in health. With a foreword from Sir Michael Marmot, the report further explores whatThe Marmot Reviewconfirmed: that socio-economic inequalities affect health outcomes and that there is a social gradient in health. In some senses this is a social sciences dialogue companion toThe Marmot Review.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-01-31

"If you could do one thing..." Nine local actions to reduce health inequalities

www.britac.ac.uk

The British Academy presents a collection of opinion pieces on health inequalities from leading social scientists. Each of the authors has written an article, drawing on the evidence base for their particular area of expertise, identifying one policy intervention  that they think local authorities could introduce to improve the health of the local population and reduce health inequalities. The report seeks to help local policymakers improve the health of their communities by presenting evidence from the social sciences that can help reduce inequalities in health. With a foreword from Sir Michael Marmot, the report further explores what The Marmot Reviewconfirmed: that socio-economic inequalities affect health outcomes and that there is a social gradient in health. In some senses this is a social sciences dialogue companion to The Marmot Review.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-01-31

"If you could do one thing..." Nine local actions to reduce health inequalities

www.britac.ac.uk

The British Academy presents a collection of opinion pieces on health inequalities from leading social scientists. Each of the authors has written an article, drawing on the evidence base for their particular area of expertise, identifying one policy intervention  that they think local authorities could introduce to improve the health of the local population and reduce health inequalities. The report seeks to help local policymakers improve the health of their communities by presenting evidence from the social sciences that can help reduce inequalities in health. With a foreword from Sir Michael Marmot, the report further explores what The Marmot Reviewconfirmed: that socio-economic inequalities affect health outcomes and that there is a social gradient in health. In some senses this is a social sciences dialogue companion to The Marmot Review.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-01-31