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Health inequalities by socioeconomic characteristics in Spain: the economic crisis effect

Health inequalities by socioeconomic characteristics in Spain: the economic crisis effect Background:An economic crisis can widen health inequalities between individuals. The aim of this paper is to explore differences in the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on Spaniards' self-assessed health status, depending on the Spanish economic situation. Methods:Data from the 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 National Health Surveys were used and binary logit and probit models were estimated to approximate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on the likelihood to report good health. Results:The difference between high and low education levels leads to differences in the likelihood to report good health of 16.00-16.25 and 18.15-18.22 percentage points in 2006-07 and 2011-12, respectively. In these two periods, the difference between employees and unemployed is 5.24-5.40 and 4.60-4.90 percentage points, respectively. Additionally, the difference between people who live in households with better socioeconomic conditions and those who are in worse situation reaches 5.37-5.46 and 3.63-3.74 percentage points for the same periods, respectively. Conclusions:The magnitude of the contribution of socioeconomic characteristics to health inequalities changes with the economic cycle; but this effect is different depending on the socioeconomic characteristics indicator that is being measured. In recessive periods, health inequalities due to education level increase, but those linked to individual professional status and household living conditions are attenuated. When the joint ef ...

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2016-04-13

How could differences in "control over destiny" lead to socio-economic inequalities in health? A synthesis of theories and pathways in the living environment

How could differences in "control over destiny" lead to socio-economic inequalities in health? A synthesis of theories and pathways in the living environment We conducted the first synthesis of theories on causal associations and pathways connecting degree of control in the living environment to socio-economic inequalities in health-related outcomes. We identified the main theories about how differences in 'control over destiny' could lead to socio-economic inequalities in health, and conceptualised these at three distinct explanatory levels: micro/personal; meso/community; and macro/societal. These levels are interrelated but have rarely been considered together in the disparate literatures in which they are located. This synthesis of theories provides new conceptual frameworks to contribute to the design and conduct of theory-led evaluations of actions to tackle inequalities in health.

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2016-03-04

Socioeconomic inequalities in injuries treated in primary care in Madrid, Spain.

BACKGROUND:Socioeconomic inequalities in injury morbidity are an important yet understudied issue in Southern Europe. This study analysed the injuries treated in primary care in the Community of Madrid, Spain, by socioeconomic status (SES), sex and age.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of injuries registered in the primary care electronic medical records of the Madrid Health Service in 2012. Incidence stratified by sex, SES and type of injury were calculated. Poisson regression was performed.RESULTS: A statistically significant upward trend in global injury incidence was observed with decreasing SES in all age groups. By type of injury, the largest differences were observed in injuries by foreign body in men aged 15-44 and in poisonings in girls under 15 years of age. Burns risk also stood out in the group of girls under 15 years of age with the lowest SES. In the group above 74 years of age, wounds, bruises and sprains had the lowest SES differences in both sexes, and the risk of fractures was lower in the most socioeconomically advantaged group.CONCLUSION: People with lower SES were at a greater risk of injury. The relationship between SES and injury varies by type of injury and age.

Categoría:Clase Social
Publicado en ODS2016-02-19

Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

BACKGROUND:To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012.METHODS:National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively.RESULTS:No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level.CONCLUSION:A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups ...

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-07-29

Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

Background:The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour.This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Methods:Participants were 66,960 Dutch adults (?18 years) who took part in the annual national Health Survey (2004–2011). Period was dichotomised: ‘pre-’ and ‘during-GFC’. SES measures used were income, education and neighbourhood deprivation. Outcomes were current smoking rates (smokers/total population) and smoking cessation ratios (former smokers/ever smokers). Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics and tested for interaction between period and SES. Results:In both periods, high SES respondents (in all indicators) had lower current smoking levels and higher cessation ratios than those of middle or low SES. Inequalities in current smoking increased significantly in poorly educated adults of 45–64 years of age (Odds Ratio (OR) low educational level compared with high: 2.00[1.79-2.23] compared to pre-GFC 1.67[1.50-1.86], p for interaction?=?0.02). Smoking cessation inequalities by income in 18–30 year olds increased with borderline significance during the GFC (OR low income compared to high income: 0.73[0.58-0.91]) compared to pre-GFC (OR: 0.98[0.80-1.20]), p for interaction?=?0.051). Conclusion ...

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-05-20

Patterns of health risk behaviors among job-seekers: a latent class analysis.

Patterns of health risk behaviors among job-seekers: a latent class analysis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the patterning of four behavior-related health risk factors (tobacco smoking, risky alcohol drinking, overweight, and physical inactivity) among job-seekers and to investigate socio-demographic and health-related predictors of patterning.METHODS:The sample of 3,684 female and 4,221 male job-seekers was proactively recruited at three job agencies in northeastern Germany in 2008/09. Participants provided data on socio-demographics, substance use, body mass index, physical activity and self-rated health. Latent class analyses (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied to identify health risk patterns and possible predictors of patterning, respectively.RESULTS:Forty-three percent of the female and 58% of the male participants had two or more health risk factors. LCA revealed three similar patterns for women and men: Substance use (tobacco smoking, risky drinking), Non-exercising overweight (physical inactivity, overweight/obesity) and Health-conscious (non-smoking, low-risk drinking, under-/normal weight, physical activity). Age, education, marital status, life-time unemployment and self-rated health were significantly associated with patterning in both genders.CONCLUSIONS:Our results may help to define target populations for improving health behaviors among job-seekers.

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-04-15