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Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union Gender-based violence is perceived as one of the most severe forms of gender inequality and it remains one of the most pervasive human rights violations of modern time. It is an issue that affects women disproportionally as it is directly connected with the unequal distribution of power between women and men; thus, it has a profound effecton families, communities and societies as a whole. The elimination of gender-based violence and the protection of victims/survivors is a stated goal of the European Union and one of the future key areas of work for the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). Identifying the economic costs of gender-based violence will contribute to betterinformed decision-making in this area and support the comprehensive process of policy development.This report aims to analyse and assess the methodological options in the existing literature and studies on the costs to society of intimate partner violence.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-05-27

Las desigualdades de género en la ciencia: GACETA SANITARIA da un paso adelante

Las desigualdades de género en la ciencia: GACETA SANITARIA  da un paso adelante Las desigualdades de género están presentes en la familia, el trabajo, los salarios, los recursos económicos, el uso del tiempo y el poder, de manera que las mujeres tienen una peor situación1. La desigual distribución del poder se refleja también en las instituciones y las estructuras relacionadas con la ciencia, y a su vez se plasma en la producción científica. En este editorial se contextualiza y presenta una iniciativa promovida por el equipo editorial de Gaceta Sanitaria para responder a estas desigualdades a través de la nueva «Política de Gaceta Sanitaria para fomentar la igualdad de género en la publicación científica».

TipoEditores
Publicado en ODS2015-05-11

Atlas de desigualdades de género en salud en Andalucía

Atlas de desigualdades de género en salud en Andalucía El Atlas de desigualdades de género en salud en Andalucía se enmarca dentro de un proyectode investigación de excelencia, realizado en la Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (Granada, España), con la financiación de la Consejería de Economía, Innovación, Ciencia y Empleo de la Junta de Andalucía y del Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional. Se trata del primer atlas interactivo realizado en la comunidad andaluza para medir esta realidad, a través de novedosos y útiles indicadores como son las brechas de género. Esta monografía resumelos principales mapas que ofrece este atlas interactivo.Estos mapas pueden ser utilizados para mejorar la información estadística en contextos como el andaluz, al resultar una potencial herramienta de comparación entre los datos disponibles y losque resultaría conveniente incluir en el futuro. El Atlas pretende ser un instrumento de apoyo tanto para la toma de decisiones políticas y el diseño de investigaciones científicas, como al servicio de la ciudadanía.

TipoMapas
Publicado en ODS2015-05-06

Guía de indicadores para medir las desigualdades de género en salud y sus determinantes

Guía de indicadores para medir las desigualdades de género en salud y sus determinantes Los indicadores de género son de utilidad para señalar cambios en el estatus y el rol de las mujeres y de los hombres en distintos momentos del tiempo, y por tanto, ofrecer una imagen dinámica de la situación de la equidad de género en un contexto social determinado. La guía aporta cuatro productos: (1) Un esquema con una estructura de dimensiones y subdimensiones para abordar la desigualdades de género en salud y sus dterminantes; (2) Un listado detallado de los indicadores, clasificados dentro de cada una de ls dimensiones y subdimensiones; (3) Un listado priorizado de los indicadores de género; (4) Otros detalles de interés para valora la sensibilidad de los indicadores y su accesibilidad.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-05-05

The motherhood pay gap: A review of the issues, theory and international evidence

The motherhood pay gap: A review of the issues, theory and international evidence The motherhood pay gap measures the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers,the latter defined in most econometric studies as women without dependent children. It also measures the pay gap between mothers and fathers. This is different from the gender pay gap, which measures the pay gap between all women and all men in the workforce.While there is a considerable international literature on the motherhood gap, differences both in methodologies and in how mothers, non-mothers and fathers are defined using available data create difficulties in comparing estimates. Moreover, in many countries,the data are often unsuitable for analysis, typically because the questions posed insurveys make it difficult to establish the identity of a child’s mother or father(particularly in developing countries where the nuclear family is less common.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-04-22

Resource guide on gender issues in employment and labour market policies

Resource guide on gender issues in employment and labour market policies The objective of this resource guide is to strengthen the capacities of ILO constituents and development policy makers in the formulation of employment policies. There is a well-known proclivity among many policy-makers and practitioners to treat employment as a “residual” of economic growth. However, since the 2008 global financial and economic crisis, and the subsequent high rates of unemployment and underemployment in many countries, job creation has stepped to the forefront of policy priorities. As a result, renewed attention is being given to gender and labour market issues.The world has seen increasing levels of labour-force participation among women during the last 20 years; however, even in countries where women’s labour force participation has increased; the quality of employment has not necessarily improved. Women continue to be over-represented in precarious, atypical, and informal employment, particularlywhen compared to men’s patterns of employment. This is because women continue to face difficulties in having equitable access to productive employment opportunities, and while some progress has been achieved, the attainment of gender equality in the world of work remains a major challenge.There is ample evidence that improving women’s employment prospects can have not only positive effects on women’s economic empowerment, but engender broader economic and social benefits as well. Yet, gender concerns have not been fully integrated with mainstream policies. Hence, ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-04-07

Mainstreaming gender into occupational safety and health practice

Mainstreaming gender into occupational safety and health practice Women and men are not the same, and the jobs they do, their working conditions and circumstances and how society treats them are not the same. All these factors can affect the risks they face at work and the approach that needs to be taken to prevent these risks. More widespread recognition of the importance of taking account of gender differences in occupational safety and health (OSH) is relatively recent, although the number of initiatives seen in this area is increasing. However, especially because it is not always a very well understood area, practice needs to be exchanged and experiences shared. This report presents examples of policies, programmes and practices from across the EU and worldwide to illustrate gender approaches in OSH.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-03-16

Women in Business and Mangement: Gaining momentum

Gender balance is increasingly seen as good for business. The growing participation of women in the labour market has been a major engine of global growth and competitiveness. And a growing number of studies are reaching the conclusion that gender balance in management teams and boards appears to make financial sense. Yet why are there still so few women at the top? The glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching top positions in business and management may be showing cracks but it is still there. More women than ever before are managers and business owners, but there is still a dearth of women at the top of the corporate ladder. And the larger the company or organization, the less likely the head will be a woman – 5 per cent or less of the CEOs of the world’s largest corporations are women (ref. Table 1 below). This report looks at the most recent statistics and information at a global level, and provides a unique insight into the experiences, realities and views of companies in developing countries. It aims to create greater understanding of the barriers to women’s advancement in business and management. It points to possible ways of tackling the issue, highlighting good practices among private sector businesses and organizations that represent them.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-03-06

Percepción de la violencia de género en la adolescencia y la juventud

Percepción de la violencia de género en la adolescencia y la juventud En este estudio se analizan los resultados de una encuesta sobre la percepción social de la violencia de género en la adolescencia y la juventud realizada por el Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) por encargo de la Delegación del Gobierno para la Violencia de Género a una muestra de 2.457 personas de ambos sexos representativa de la poblaciónresidente en España de 15 a 29 años.Los objetivos principales del estudio son: 1. Analizar la percepción de la igualdad de género existente entre las y los adolescentes y jóvenes en España en la actualidad, el rechazo o tolerancia a la violencia de género en sus distintas manifestaciones, y la pervivencia de distintos estereotipos sobre víctimas y agresores.2. Estudiar el alcance de la violencia de género en el entorno de las personas jóvenes entrevistadas, así como el conocimiento de los distintos recursos que existen para combatir la violencia de género.3. Analizar el conocimiento de la adolescencia y la juventud del lugar a donde acudir en caso de querer interponer una denuncia por malos tratos, así como las razones que se atribuyen a las víctimas para no denunciar a su maltratador. En el estudio también se comparan las percepciones de jóvenes y adolescentes con las de la población general con datos de la encuesta “Percepción social de la violencia de género” de junio de 2014.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-03-04

Salud y conductas relacionadas con la salud según la atracción y la conducta sexual

Salud y conductas relacionadas con la salud según la atracción y la conducta sexual Objetivo:Describir la salud percibida, la salud mental y algunas conductas relacionadas con la salud según la atracción y la conducta sexual en los residentes en Barcelona en 2011. Métodos:Se analizó la salud percibida y mental, los trastornos crónicos y las conductas relacionadas con la salud, en 2675 personas de 15 a 64 años de edad teniendo en cuenta la atracción y la conducta sexual en el marco de la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona 2011. Se ajustaron modelos multivariados de regresión de Poisson robusta para obtener razones de prevalencia. Resultados:Las personas atraídas por el mismo sexo presentaron mayor prevalencia de mala salud percibida y mental. Estas personas y las que habían tenido relaciones con personas del mismo sexo declararon más frecuentemente conductas perjudiciales para la salud. Conclusiones:La población lesbiana, gay, transexual y bisexual puede presentar problemas de salud que deben ser explorados en profundidad, prevenidos y atendidos.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-02-27

Preventing and addressing intimate partner violence against migrant and ethnic minority women: the role of the health sector.

Preventing and addressing intimate partner violence against migrant and ethnic minority women: the role of the health sector. Violence against women is an extreme manifestation of gender inequality in society and a serious violation of fundamental human rights. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of such violence and takes place within couples. IPV can lead to death, physical injury, functional impairment, mental health problems, negative health behaviour, chronic conditions and reproductive health problems. Institutional discrimination, lack of access to or knowledge of services, and cultural differences can prevent women who are not only experiencing IPV but also migrants or members of ethnic minorities from seeking help. This policy brief aims to provide input into the role of the health sector in preventing and addressing IPV among migrant women and those of ethnic minorities. It describes the scope of the problem, presenting key evidence, and makes recommendations for health policy and health systems, health facilities and health service providers.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (colecciones)
Publicado en ODS2015-02-25

Indicators of Gender Equality

Indicators of Gender Equality Statistics and indicators that reflect the realities of the lives of women and men are needed to describe women’s and men’s role in the society, economy and family, to formulate and monitor policies and plans, monitor changes, and inform the public. In 2010, the Conference of European Statisticians (CES) established the Task Force on Indicators of Gender Equality, to improve the monitoring of gender equality in the UNECE region by consolidating and systematizing gender-relevant statistical indicators. This publication contains the result of the work of that Task Force, which was endorsed by CES in October 2014. It presents a set of 115 gender equality indicators recommended for use in countries participating in the work of CES.The indicators are grouped in eight thematic domains inspired by the Beijing Platform for Action and categorized into 42 headline indicators and 73 supporting indicators. The selection is based on the consideration of policy needs, main existing international indicator frameworks, relevance to the measurement of gender equality and international availability.

Publicado en ODS2015-01-11

Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment

Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010–12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women’s empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1–31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7–19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50–64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45–1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking ...

Publicado en ODS2015-02-06

Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing, and the prescription of drugs

This thesis is part of the studies of gender bias in health which together with the paradigm of evidence-based medicine shares the empirical assumption that there are inaccuracies in medical practice, in addition to a lack of rigour and transparency. It worked with the distinction between the concepts of sex and gender and between the concepts of sex-related differences and gender inequalities, in terms of applying a gender perspective in the study design and the subsequent analysis. This PhD review presents the research process conducted in Spain, which can provide an example for future research. Study I described a review of 58 clinical trials (CTs) of etoricoxib to assess its compliance with the Recommendations of Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Clinical Evaluation of Drugs. In Study II, key informants from professions related to different areas in drug development and pharmacovigilance held a working meeting to reach a consensus document on recommendations for the study and evaluation of gender differences in CTs in Spain. In Study III, the websites of the eight best-selling hormone replacement therapy drugs in Spain on Google first page of results were analysed. In Study IV, a logistic regression analysis was performed to compare analgesic prescription by sex in regions with a higher or lower Gender Development Index (GDI) than the Spanish average. Gender biases identified in this thesis limited the legitimacy of medicine, which is not based on the best possible ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-01-26

Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333?693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100?602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49 ...

TipoRevisiones Bibliográficas
Publicado en ODS2015-01-16

Desigualdades de género en España: continuidades y cambios

Desigualdades de género en España: continuidades y cambios El número 33 de la revista Areas, "Desigualdades de género en España: continuidades y cambios",aspira a hacer un balance de las investigaciones sobre algunas de las principales dimensiones de lasdesigualdades de género en distintos ámbitos –la educación,el empleo, los salarios, la alimentación, el acceso a la propiedad y a los recursos económicos familiares, la salud, el trabajo de cuidados, las políticas públicas y los modelos de Estado-,portando datos, interpretaciones y métodos para mejorar lainvestigación desde una perspectiva feminista.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (colecciones)
Publicado en ODS2015-01-08

Desigualdades de género en la carrera profesional: ¿aún existen barreras a los médicos mujeres en el siglo XXI?

gacetasanitaria.org/es/

Objetivo: Analizar el avance de las mujeres en comparación con los hombres en la medicina y analizar si el avance jerárquico difiere del avance en su reconocimiento profesional en el periodo 1996-2008. Métodos:Estudio retrospectivo en el Hospital Clínic de Barcelona mediante el análisis de datos relativos a posición temporal y permanente, jerarquía, carrera profesional, especialidad, edad y sexo de los médicos. Resultados:La proporción de mujeres y hombres entre residentes fue superior a 1 durante el período de estudio. Finalizada la residencia, la proporción de mujeres dobla la proporción de hombres entre posiciones médicas temporales. Menos del 50% de las mujeres en comparación con el 70% de los hombres logra posiciones médicas permanentes. La proporción de mujeres y hombres entre posiciones permanentes no jerarquizadas y jerarquizadas desciende gradualmente desde 0.5 hasta llegar a menos de 0.2. A pesar de que más del 50% de residentes son mujeres, ellas alcanzan el grado de consultor 25% menos que sus colegas masculinos. En 2008, el último año del estudio, un tercio de las mujeres (10,9%) en comparación con los hombres (29,5%) alcanzó el grado de consultor senior (p

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-10-06

La producción científica biomédica sobre transexualidad en España: análisis bibliométrico y de contenido (1973-2011)

gacetasanitaria.org/es/

Objetivo:Explorar la evolución del conocimiento científico sobre transexualidad durante los últimos 40 años, a través de un análisis bibliométrico y de contenido de la producción de la literatura biomédica española sobre la transexualidad entre los años 1973 y 2011. Método:Descriptivo y transversal. Universo: artículos biomédicos españoles sobre transexualidad publicados entre 1973 y 2011. Fuente: Índice Médico Español e ISOC-Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. Análisis: bibliométrico y de contenido de las publicaciones biomédicas. Resultados:65 artículos biomédicos analizados. Entre 1973 y 1984, en España, el conocimiento sobre transexualidad se produce y circula en revistas médicas. En 1996 se inicia una década de gran productividad, y en los años siguientes el número de revistas que publican sobre transexualidad se multiplica. Hasta 2006, año de mayor productividad biomédica, los discursos biomédicos reproducen representaciones de la transexualidad ancladas en el determinismo biológico. En el período 2008-2011, los y las profesionales incorporan teorías feministas y perspectivas sociales en sus discursos. Conclusiones:En el último cuarto del siglo xx, el discurso médico dominante ha considerado las manifestaciones de las personas transexuales desde una perspectiva biologicista que concibe la transexualidad como un error de correspondencia sexo/género. En los últimos años, la aparición de nuevas categorías de identidad y la reflexión desde posturas no esencialistas y normat ...

TipoRevisión
Publicado en ODS2014-09-05

The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe

bit.ly/U6cas7

The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women’s health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi’s typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR=1.13, 95%C ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-07-10

The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe

bit.ly/U6cas7

The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women’s health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi’s typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR=1.13, 95%C ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-07-11