Territorio

Recursos RSS
Añada su recurso haciendo clic aquí

Preventing non-communicable diseases through structural changes in urban environments

Preventing non-communicable diseases through structural changes in urban environments The primary determinants of disease are mainly economic and social, and therefore its remedies must also be economic and social. Medicine and politics cannot and should not be kept apart. Rose1To achieve [a reduction in overweight and obesity] is perhaps the major public health and societal challenge of the century. Potential strategies include [….] redesign of built environments to promote physical activity, changes in food systems, restrictions on aggressive promotion of unhealthy drinks and foods to children and economic strategies such as taxation. Willet2 Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)—mainly cancers, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases—are the main causes of death and morbidity worldwide.3 NCDs are now annually responsible for more than 35 million deaths in the world with more than 80% of this disease burden occurring in low-income and middle-income countries.4 At the same time, NCDs are highly preventable by means of effective preventive interventions tackling shared behavioural risk factors such as unhealthy diets, harmful use of alcohol, tobacco use and physical inactivity.5 Efforts to prevent NCDs have historically included strategies to target high-risk individuals, which have shown, especially in the case of obesity and diabetes, poor results.6 ,7 To advance the prevention of NCDs, population-wide understanding of these shared risk factors and morbidity remains crucial. The population approach to prevent NCDs, articulated ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-05-25

Atlas de Barrios Vulnerables de España: 12 ciudades 1991/2001/2006

Atlas de Barrios Vulnerables de España: 12 ciudades 1991/2001/2006 El Altas de Barrios Vulnerables de España se basa en los trabajos recogidos en los catálogos “Análisis urbanístico de Barrios Vulnerables” de 1991 y 2001, y su Adenda 2006, realizados gracias al convenio de colaboración entre la Sección de Urbanismo del Instituto Juan de Herrera de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) y el Ministerio de Fomento. En este documento no se recogen los catálogos de los barrios estudiados, que pueden ser consultados on-line, ya que el objetivo es presentar un panorama general sobre la dimensión y evolución de la vulnerabilidad de las ciudades españolas de más de 50.000 habitantes. El marco general se completa con los informes individuales de las 12 ciudades de más de 300.000 habitantes. Los informes individuales contienen el análisis estadístico de la evolución de la vulnerabilidad de cada una de las ciudades con un especial cuidado en su representación cartográfica, que permite al lector un análisis territorial de la vulnerabilidad urbana y la comparación tanto temporal como por tipo de vulnerabilidad. Además, para facilitar la comprensión de los datos analizados, este Atlas se acompaña de un conjunto de anexos en los que se describe la metodología empleada en el trabajo del que se extraen dicho datos, y un glosario de términos básicos para su comprensión.

TipoMapas
Publicado en ODS2015-05-18

Global evidence on inequities in rural health protection: New data on rural deficits in health coverage for 174 countries

This paper presents global estimates on rural/urban disparities in access to health-care services. The report uses proxy indicators to assess key dimensions of coverage and access involving the core principles of universality and equity. Based on the results of the estimates,policy options are discussed to close the gaps in a multi-sectoral approach addressing issues and their root causes both within and beyond the health sector.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-05-15

Educational inequalities in diabetes mortality across Europe in the 2000s: the interaction with gender

Educational inequalities in diabetes mortality across Europe in the 2000s: the interaction with gender Objectives:To evaluate educational inequalities in diabetes mortality in Europe in the 2000s, and to assess whether these inequalities differ between genders.Methods:Data were obtained from mortality registries covering 14 European countries. To determine educational inequalities in diabetes mortality, age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated. To assess whether the association between education and diabetes mortality differs between genders, diabetes mortality was regressed on gender, educational rank and ‘gender × educational rank’.Results:An inverse association between education and diabetes mortality exists in both genders across Europe. Absolute educational inequalities are generally larger among men than women; relative inequalities are generally more pronounced among women, the relative index of inequality being 2.8 (95 % CI 2.0–3.9) in men versus 4.8 (95 % CI 3.2–7.2) in women. Gender inequalities in diabetes mortality are more marked in the highest than the lowest educated.Conclusions:Education and diabetes mortality are inversely related in Europe in the 2000s. This association differs by gender, indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender dimension into account when developing public health policies.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-04-09

Salud autorreferida: influencia de la pobreza y la desigualdad en el área de residencia

Objetivo:Evaluar la influencia de la desigualdad de ingresos y de la pobreza de las localidades de Bogotá-Colombia sobre la percepción de mala salud de sus residentes. Métodos:El estudio se basó en la encuesta multipropósito aplicada en Bogotá-Colombia. Se utilizó la estructura jerárquica de los datos (individuos=nivel 1, localidades=nivel 2) para definir un modelo logístico multinivel de tipo logit. La variable dependiente fue la percepción de mala salud, y las variables de localidad fueron la desigualdad de ingresos y la pobreza. Todos los análisis se controlaron por variables sociodemográficas y se estratificaron por sexo. Resultados:La prevalencia de reportar regular o mala salud en la población estudiada fue del 23,2%. Las mujeres mostraron mayor riesgo de mala salud, así como también los hombres y mujeres de bajo nivel educativo, con edad avanzada, sin trabajo en la última semana y afiliados al régimen subsidiado de salud. Los mayores niveles de pobreza en la localidad incrementan el riesgo de mala salud. Las interacciones transnivel mostraron que mujeres jóvenes y hombres con bajo nivel educativo son los más afectados por la desigualdad de ingresos de la localidad. Conclusiones:En Bogotá existen diferencias geográficas en la percepción de la salud, y mayores porcentajes de pobreza y desigualdad de ingreso se mostraron asociados a un mayor riesgo de mala salud. Destacan grandes inequidades de salud entre individuos y entre localidades.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-03-09

How can inequalities in mortality be reduced? A quantitative analysis of 6 risk factors in 21 european populations

How can inequalities in mortality be reduced? A quantitative analysis of 6 risk factors in 21 european populations Background:Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are one of the greatest challenges for health policy in all European countries, but the potential for reducing these inequalities is unclear. We therefore quantified the impact of equalizing the distribution of six risk factors for mortality: smoking, overweight, lack of physical exercise, lack of social participation, low income, and economic inactivity. Methods:We collected and harmonized data on mortality and risk factors by educational level for 21 European populations in the early 2000s. The impact of the risk factors on mortality in each educational group was determined using Population Attributable Fractions. We estimated the impact on inequalities in mortality of two scenarios: a theoretical upward levelling scenario in which inequalities in the risk factor were completely eliminated, and a more realistic best practice scenario, in which inequalities in the risk factor were reduced to those seen in the country with the smallest inequalities for that risk factor. Findings:In general, upward levelling of inequalities in smoking, low income and economic inactivity hold the greatest potential for reducing inequalities in mortality. While the importance of low income is similar across Europe, smoking is more important in the North and East, and overweight in the South. On the basis of best practice scenarios the potential for reducing inequalities in mortality is often smaller, but still substantial in many countries for ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-02-16

Análisis espacial de la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la ciudad de Madrid, España

Fundamentos: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo, aunque su distribución espacial no es homogénea.El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el patrón espacial de la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en el área urbana poblada (AUP) del municipio de Madrid así como identificar agregaciones espaciales.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ecológico, por sección censal, para hombres y mujeres durante 2010. Se calculó la Razón de Mortalidad Estandarizada (RME), Riesgo Relativo Suavizado (RRS) y Probabilidad Posterior (PP) de que el RRS fuera mayor que 1. Para identificar clusters espaciales se utilizó el índice de Moran (I Moran) y el Índice Local de AutocorrelaciónEspacial (LISA). Los resultados fueron representados cartográficamente.Resultados: En el caso de los hombres se observó una RME mayor de 1,1 especialmente en áreas centrales y en en el grupo de las mujeres ocurrió en la periferia. LA PP de que el RRS fuera mayor que 1 superó el 0,8 en el centro para los hombres y en la periferia en mujeres. El I Moran fue de 0,04 para hombres y de 0,03 para mujeres (p <0,05 en ambos casos).Conclusiones: En el patrón espacial de la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en Madrid, se observaron diferencias por sexo. Los mapas de RME, RRS y PP mostraron un patrón más heterogéneo en los hombresmientras que en las mujeres se detectó uno más definido, con un riesgo relativamente mayor en zonas periféricas del AUP. El método LISA mostró agrup ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-01-21

Socioeconomic differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in 16 European countries

Background:Cause-of-death data linked to information on socioeconomic position form one of the most important sources of information about health inequalities in many countries. The proportion of deaths from ill-defined conditions is one of the indicators of the quality of cause-of-death data. We investigated educational differences in the use of ill-defined causes of death in official mortality statistics. Methods:Using age-standardized mortality rates from 16 European countries, we calculated the proportion of all deaths in each educational group that were classified as due to “Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions”. We tested if this proportion differed across educational groups using Chi-square tests. Results:The proportion of ill-defined causes of death was lower than 6.5% among men and 4.5% among women in all European countries, without any clear geographical pattern. This proportion statistically significantly differed by educational groups in several countries with in most cases a higher proportion among less than secondary educated people compared with tertiary educated people. Conclusions:We found evidence for educational differences in the distribution of ill-defined causes of death. However, the differences between educational groups were small suggesting that socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific mortality in Europe are not likely to be biased.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-01-14

Effect of neighbourhood motorization rates on walking levels

Effect of neighbourhood motorization rates on walking levels Background: Motorized traffic may discourage people walking. This study analyses the influence of motorization on pedestrian mobility in the neighbourhoods of a European city, controlling for environmental, sociodemographic, mobility and road safety characteristics of the neighbourhood in which each trip was made. Methods: Cross-sectional ecological study using the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona as the unit of analysis. Mobility information was obtained from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey. Walking rates were calculated for 32.343 men and women who made walking trips, per 1000 men and women who made trips in the 38 neighbourhoods. Data were aggregated to calculate the total number of motorized trips made in each neighbourhood. ? coefficients and their confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression, in order to study the relationship between walking and motorization, in the different tertiles of motorization and adjusting for contextual factors and their corresponding interactions with motorization. Results: Levels of motorization in the neighbourhood negatively influence walking, even when environmental variables of the neighbourhood are considered. In men we observe a gradient whereby walking rates fall as motorization rises (? = ?0.248; P < 0.001 and ? = ?0.363; P < 0.001 in the second and third quartiles of motorization, respectively). In the case of women we find that only high levels of motorization have a negative influence on the rates of women who ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-12-15

Fuel poverty and cold home-related problems

A household is in fuel poverty if it is on a low income and faces high costs of keeping adequately warm and other basic energy services. Fuel poverty is driven by three main factors: household income, the current cost of energy and the energy efficiency of the home.Fuel poverty is associated with cold homes. England’s housing stock is made up ofrelatively energy inefficient properties which can result in homes that are difficult or costlyto heat. However, households can be cold without being in fuel poverty if people choosenot to heat their homes adequately where they have the means to do so. A social gradient in fuel poverty exists; those on lower household incomes are more likelyto be at risk of fuel poverty, contributing to social and health inequalities.The most recent data on fuel poverty in England indicates that there were 2.28 million fuel-poor households in 2012. Cold homes can affect or exacerbate a range of health problems including respiratory problems, circulatory problems and increased risk of poor mental health. Estimates suggest that some 10% of excess winter deaths are directly attributable to fuel poverty and a fifth of excess winter deaths are attributable to the coldest quarter of homes.Cold homes can also affect wider determinants of health, such as educational performance among children and young people, as well as work absences. Tackling fuel poverty and cold home-related health problems is important for improving health outcomes and reducing inequal ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-12-05

Exploring complex causal pathways between urban renewal, health and health inequality using a theory-driven approach

Introduction:Urban populations are growing and to accommodate these numbers, cities are becoming more involved in urban renewal programs to improve the physical, social and economic conditions in different areas. This paper explores some of the complexities surrounding the link between urban renewal, health and health inequalities using a theory-driven approach. Methods:We focus on an urban renewal initiative implemented in Barcelona, the Neighbourhoods Law, targeting Barcelona’s (Spain) most deprived neighbourhoods. We present evidence from two studies on the health evaluation of the Neighbourhoods Law, while drawing from recent urban renewal literature, to follow a four-step process to develop a program theory. We then use two specific urban renewal interventions, the construction of a large central plaza and the repair of streets and sidewalks, to further examine this link. Discussion:In order for urban renewal programs to affect health and health inequality, neighbours must use and adapt to the changes produced by the intervention. However, there exist barriers that can result in negative outcomes including factors such as accessibility, safety and security. Conclusion:This paper provides a different perspective to the field that is largely dominated by traditional quantitative studies that are not always able to address the complexities such interventions provide. Furthermore, the framework and discussions serve as a guide for future research, policy development and e ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-12-03

The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

Aims:To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use <4hrs/week and use of the park ?4 h/week. The study received approval from the Kaunas Regional Research Ethics Committee. Multiple logistic regression assessed the associations controlling for confounding variables. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms and poor and or very poor perceived general health was higher in women than in men. The association between the use of the park and residential proximity to the park revealed that women living >300 m from a green space and who used the space ?4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park <4 hrs="" week="" and="" residential="" proximity="" was="">300 m. Conclusions: The results of our study confirmed an association between u ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-10-08

Physical and mental health outcomes following improvements: evidence from the GoWell study

Physical and mental health outcomes following improvements: evidence from the GoWell study Background: Existing research points towards physical and mental health gains from housing improvements, but findings are inconsistent and often not statistically significant. The detailed characteristics and variability of housing improvement works are problematic and studies are often small, not experimental, with short follow-up times. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to assess the impact on physical health and mental health (using SF-12v2 Physical and Mental health component summary scales) of four types of housing improvement works—central heating, ‘Secured By Design’ front doors, fabric works, kitchens and bathrooms—both singly and in pairwise combinations. A longitudinal sample of 1933 residents from 15 deprived communities in Glasgow, UK was constructed from surveys carried out in 2006, 2008 and 2011. Sociodemographic characteristics and changes in employment status were taken into account. Results: Fabric works had positive associations with physical health (+2.09, 95% CI 0.13 to 4.04) and mental health (+1.84, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.65) in 1–2?years. Kitchens and bathrooms had a positive association with mental health in 1–2?years (+2.58, 95% CI 0.79 to 4.36). Central heating had a negative association with physical health (?2.21, 95% CI ?3.74 to ?0.68). New front doors had a positive association with mental health...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-09-18

Geografía social del SIDA en Brasil: los patrones de identificación de las desigualdades regionales

La disminución y estabilización de la epidemia de SIDA en Brasil deben ser consideradas con prudencia, ya que, en un país grande y diverso, los datos agregados pueden ocultar desigualdades regionales pronunciadas. El estudio reevaluó la difusión espacial de la epidemia y las muertes secundarias por SIDA. Se consideraron todos los casos diagnosticados con 18+ años, residentes en Brasil, así como las muertes registradas en 1998-2008. Se estimaran las tasas medias móviles desde hace tres años y se llevó a cabo el análisis espacial a través del método bayesiano empírico local. La epidemia estaba en expansión en el Norte y Noreste, mientras que se redujo en el resto del país, en especial en el Sureste. Los análisis subrayan que la aparente estabilización de la mortalidad por SIDA oculta disparidades regionales. Los determinantes sociales de la salud y las disparidades regionales son claves en la formulación de programas y políticas públicas en Brasil.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-08-27

Evaluating the health inequalities impact of area-based initiatives across the socioeconomic spectrum: a controllled intervention study of the New Deal for Communities, 2002-2008

jech.bmj.com

Background: Previous evaluations of area-based initiatives have not compared intervention areas with the full range of areas from top to bottom of the social spectrum to evaluate their health inequalities impact. Setting Deprived areas subject to the New Deal for Communities (NDC) intervention, local deprivation-matched comparator areas, and areas drawn from across the socioeconomic spectrum (representing high, medium and low deprivation) in England between 2002 and 2008. Data Secondary analysis of biannual repeat cross-sectional surveys collected for the NDC National Evaluation Team and the Health Survey for England (HSE). Methods: Following data harmonisation, baseline and time trends in six health and social determinants of health outcomes were compared. Individual-level data were modelled using regression to adjust for age, sex, ethnic and socioeconomic differences among respondents. Results: Compared with respondents in HSE low deprivation areas, those in NDC intervention areas experienced a significantly steeper improvement in education, a trend towards a steeper improvement in self-rated health, and a significantly less steep reduction in smoking between 2002 and 2008. In HSE high deprivation areas, significantly less steep improvements in five out of six outcomes were seen compared with HSE low deprivation areas. Conclusions: Although unable to consider prior trends and previous initiatives, our findings provide cautious optimism that well-resourced and construct ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-07-18

Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: Why we should measure them all

www.equityhealthj.com

Introduction Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and comparable manner. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of large, publicly available data, 2008, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) and 2008, 2009, and 2010 United States Birth Records from the National Vital Statistics System. The study population is American adults older than 25 years of age residing in the selected 93 counties, representing about 30% of the US population, roughly equally covering all geographic regions of the country. Main outcome measures are: (1) Attribute (group characteristic)-specific inequality: education-, sex-, or race-specific inequality in each of the four health outcomes (poor or fair health, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, and low birthweight) in each county; (2) Overall inequality: the average of these three attribute-specific inequalities for each health outcome in each county; and (3) Summary inequality in total morbidity: the weig ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-07-07

The impact of NHS resource allocation policy on health inequalities in England 2001-11: longitudinal ecological study

www.bmj.com

The impact of NHS resource allocation policy on health inequalities in England 2001-11: longitudinal ecological study This longitudinal ecological study investigated whether the policy of increasing National Health Service funding to a greater extent in deprived areas in England compared with more affluent areas led to a reduction in geographical inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. Between 2001 and 2011 the increase in NHS resources to deprived areas accounted for a reduction in the gap between deprived and affluent areas in male mortality amenable to healthcare of 35 deaths per 100?000 population and female mortality of 16 deaths per 100?000. This explained 85% of the total reduction of absolute inequality in mortality amenable to healthcare during this time. Each additional £10m of resources allocated to deprived areas was associated with a reduction in 4 deaths in males per 100?000 and 1.8 deaths in females per 100?000. The association between absolute increases in NHS resources and improvements in mortality amenable to healthcare in more affluent areas was not significant.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-07-01

Municipal interventions against inequalities in health: The view of their managers

sjp.sagepub.com

Background: European city councils are increasingly developing interventions against health inequalities. There is little knowledge about how they are perceived. This study describes and analyses good practices and challenges for local interventions on inequalities in health through the narratives of European city managers. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted. Each participating city (Amsterdam, Barcelona, Cluj-Napoca, Helsinki, Lisbon, London, Madrid, Rotterdam) selected interventions following these criteria: at least 6 months of implementation; an evaluation performed or foreseen; the reduction of health inequalities among their objectives, and only one of the interventions selected could be based on health care. Managers of these local interventions were interviewed following an outline. Eleven individual in-depth interviews describing nine local interventions were obtained. A thematic content analysis was performed. Results: One or more local interventions against health inequalities were identified in each city. Most relied on quantitative data and were linked to national strategies. Few interventions addressed socio-economic determinants. Health care, employment and education were the main determinants addressed. With variable depth, evidence-base, participation and intersectorality were regular components of the interventions. Half of them targeted the city and half some deprived neighbourhoods. Few interventions had been evaluated. Scarcity of fundin ...

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-06-10

Consumo de riesgo de alcohol y factores asociados en adolescentes de 15 a 16 años de la Cataluña Central: diferencias entre ámbito rural y urbano

gacetasanitaria.org

Objetivo:Conocer la prevalencia y los factores asociados al consumo de riesgo de alcohol entre los jóvenes de la Cataluña Central durante el curso 2011-2012 según el ámbito de residencia. Método:Estudio transversal, con una muestra de 1268 alumnos de 4° curso de ESO de la Cataluña Central. Resultados:El consumo de riesgo de alcohol es superior en los jóvenes que viven en un ámbito rural (59,6% versus49,8%). Las borracheras de hermanos y amigos, tener expectativas positivas frente al consumo y haber comprado alcohol se asociaron al consumo de riesgo. En el ámbito rural se asociaron la situación familiar de convivencia diferente a la biparental y el bajo nivel académico, y en el ámbito urbano el alto nivel socioeconómico. Conclusiones:El consumo de riesgo de alcohol es muy superior entre los jóvenes del ámbito rural. Los principales factores asociados son los consumos de figuras del entorno familiar y escolar.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-05-29

National Healthy Housing Standard

www.apha.org/advocacy/reports/reports/

Housing is one of the best known and documented determinants of health. The affordability, location, and quality of housing have all been independently linked to health. Poor quality housing and blighted neighborhoods diminish property values, increase crime, and erode the cohesiveness and political power of communities. Despite the critical role of housing in public health, attention to U.S. housing conditions remains incommensurate with its importance to our wellbeing. One illustration of this is the number of homes in substandard condition. Despite setting a national goal in Healthy People 2010 to reduce the number of units in substandard condition by 52 percent, we have made no progress. There were 6.3 million units in substandard conditions in 2001; 6.3 million units remain substandard in 2011 according to the most recent American Housing Survey.   The National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH) and the American Public Health Association (APHA) have created this evidence-based National Healthy Housing Standard as a tool to reconnect the housing and public health sectors and as an evidence-based standard of care for those in the position of improving housing conditions. We have drawn from the latest and best thinking in the fields of environmental public health, safety, building science, engineering, and indoor environmental quality.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-05-19