Tags:employment

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World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2015

World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2015 El presente informe revela que las perspectivas laborales en el mundo empeorarán durante los próximos cinco años. En 2014 más de 201 millones de personas estaban desempleadas, 31 millones más que antes de que irrumpiese la crisis global. Se prevé asimismo que el desempleo mundial aumente en 3 millones de personas en 2015 y en 8 millones durante los siguientes cuatro años. La brecha mundial de empleo, que mide el número de puestos de trabajo perdidos desde elinicio de la crisis, se sitúa, hoy, en 61 millones de personas. Si se incluye a las personas que se incorporarán al mercado de trabajo durante los próximos cinco años, para colmar la brecha en el empleo que ha generado la crisis será preciso crear 280 millones de empleos nuevos para 2019.Los jóvenes, en particular las mujeres jóvenes, siguen viéndose afectadas por el desempleo de manera desproporcionada. En 2014, cerca de 74 millones de personas (de entre 15 y 24 años) buscaban trabajo. La tasa de desempleo de los jóvenes casi triplica la de los adultos. El aumento del desempleo de los jóvenes es común a todas las regiones y prevalece a pesar de la mejora del nivel de educación, lo que fomenta el malestar social.

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-02-03

Upgrading or polarisation? Long-term and global shifts in the employment structure. European jobs monitor 2015

Upgrading or polarisation? Long-term and global shifts in the employment structure. European jobs monitor 2015 This report, looks in more detail at shifts in employment at Member State and aggregate EU level between the second quarter of 2011 and 2014. A jobs?based approach is applied in order to describe employment shifts quantitatively (how many jobs were created or destroyed) and qualitatively (what kinds of jobs these were). This approach has been used, in particular, to assess the extent to which employment structures in developed economies are polarising, due to the decline in mid?paid jobs, or upgrading as a result of growth in high?paid, high?skilled jobs.The report examines the time profile of recent shifts in the employment structure, as it appears that the re?emergence of employment growth has coincided with a transition from the more polarised employment shifts of the peak recession years to a flatter, more equal distribution of employmentacross the wage distribution, with, if anything, a downward skew in other words, greater growth in lower?paid employment. This raises the spectre of growing low?productivity employment, where output and, ultimately, living standards fail to rise despite an increase in job opportunities.The report also synthesises the main findings from two other analyses of labour market developments that use a jobs?based approach. The first centres on developments in six European countries Germany, Spain, the UK, Sweden, Ireland and Switzerland since the 1970s.

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-07-23

The impact of the Great Recession on mental health and its inequalities: the case of a Southern European region, 1997-2013

The impact of the Great Recession on mental health and its inequalities: the case of a Southern European region, 1997-2013 Background: Numerous studies have shown that macroeconomic changes have a great influence on health, prompting different concerns in recent literature about the effects of the current recession. The objetive of the study was to assess the changes in the mental health of the working-age population in the Basque Country (Spain) and its social inequalities following the onset of the 2008 recession, with special focus on the role of unemployment. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional study on the population aged 16-64, using four Basque Health Surveys (1997-2013). Age-adjusted prevalences of poor mental health and incremental prevalence ratios (working status and social class adjusted) between years were calculated. Absolute/relative measures of social inequalities were also calculated. Results: From 2008, there was a clear deterioration in the mental health, especially among men. Neither changes in employment status nor social class accounted for these changes. In men, the deterioration affected all working status categories, except the retired but significant changes occurred only among the employed. In women, poor mental health significantly increased among the unemployed. Students were also especially affected. Relative inequalities increased only in men. Conclusions: The Great Recession is being accompanied by adverse effects on mental health, which cannot be fully explained by the increase of unemployment. Public health professionals should closely monitor the medium and lon ...

Categoría:Crisis Económica
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2016-02-05

Resource guide on gender issues in employment and labour market policies

Resource guide on gender issues in employment and labour market policies The objective of this resource guide is to strengthen the capacities of ILO constituents and development policy makers in the formulation of employment policies. There is a well-known proclivity among many policy-makers and practitioners to treat employment as a “residual” of economic growth. However, since the 2008 global financial and economic crisis, and the subsequent high rates of unemployment and underemployment in many countries, job creation has stepped to the forefront of policy priorities. As a result, renewed attention is being given to gender and labour market issues.The world has seen increasing levels of labour-force participation among women during the last 20 years; however, even in countries where women’s labour force participation has increased; the quality of employment has not necessarily improved. Women continue to be over-represented in precarious, atypical, and informal employment, particularlywhen compared to men’s patterns of employment. This is because women continue to face difficulties in having equitable access to productive employment opportunities, and while some progress has been achieved, the attainment of gender equality in the world of work remains a major challenge.There is ample evidence that improving women’s employment prospects can have not only positive effects on women’s economic empowerment, but engender broader economic and social benefits as well. Yet, gender concerns have not been fully integrated with mainstream policies. Hence, ...

Categoría:Género
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2015-04-07

Measuring employment precariousness in the European working conditions survey: The social distribution in Europe

iospress.metapress.com/content/x276pvp181608518/

BACKGROUND: Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. OBJECTIVE: The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. METHODS: A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the Employment Precariousness Construct were represented by 11 indicators. RESULTS: In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest le ...

Categoría:Clase Social
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2013-09-17

Informal employment and health status in Central America

Background: Informal employment is assumed to be an important but seldom studied social determinant of health, affecting a large number of workers around the world. Although informal employment arrangements constitute a permanent, structural pillar of many labor markets in low- and middle-income countries, studies about its relationship with health status are still scarce. In Central America more than 60 % of non-agricultural workers have informal employment. Therefore, we aimed to assess differences in self-perceived and mental health status of Central Americans with different patterns of informal and formal employment. Methods: Employment profiles were created by combining employment relations (employees, self-employed, employers), social security coverage (yes/no) and type of contract -only for employees- (written, oral, none), in a cross-sectional study of 8,823 non-agricultural workers based on the I Central American Survey of Working Conditions and Health of 2011. Using logistic regression models, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) by country, age and occupation, of poor self-perceived and mental health were calculated by sex. Different models were first fitted separately for the three dimensions of employment conditions, then for employment profiles as independent variables. Results:Poor self-perceived health was reported by 34 % of women and 27 % of men, and 30 % of women and 26 % of men reported poor mental health. Lack of social security coverage was associated with poor ...

Categoría:Territorio
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2016-02-08

Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010)

jech.bmj.com

Impact of unemployment variations on suicide mortality in Western European countries (2000-2010) BACKGROUND:A scientific debate is currently taking place on whether the 2008 economic crisis caused an increase in suicide rates. Our main objective was to assess the impact of unemployment rate on suicide rate in Western European countries between 2000 and 2010. We then tried to estimate the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment during the 2008-2010 economic crisis.METHODS:The yearly suicide rates were modelled using a quasi-Poisson model, controlling for sex, age, country and a linear time trend. For each country, the unemployment-suicide association was assessed, and the excess number of suicides attributable to the increase of unemployment was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed, notably in order to evaluate whether the unemployment-suicide association found was biased by a confounding context effect ('crisis effect').RESULTS:A significant 0.3% overall increase in suicide rate for a 10% increase in unemployment rate (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) was highlighted. This association was significant in three countries: 0.7% (95% CI 0.0% to 1.4%) in the Netherlands, 1.0% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.8%) in the UK and 1.9% (95% CI 0.8% to 2.9%) in France, with a significant excess number of suicides attributable to unemployment variations between 2008 and 2010 (respectively 57, 456 and 564). The association was modified inconsistently when adding a 'crisis effect' into the model.CONCLUSIONS:Unemployment and suicide rates are globally statistically associ ...

Categoría:Crisis Económica
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-09-01

Employment and social developments in Europe 2013

ec.europa.eu/social/home.jsp?langId=en

This year’s report offers an in-depth and wide-ranging review of key labour market and social challenges facing the EU as it slowly emerges from recession. Where will Europe’s new jobs come from in an increasingly competitive global economy? Will active inclusion policies support help address rising levels of poverty among those of working age? Will the improvement in the position of women on the labour market during the crisis be sustained or slip away with the recovery? Is the divisive issue of undeclared work being effectively addressed? Will all Member States progress equally, or do the weakest risk falling further behind? Have national social security systems been effective and efficient in maintaining incomes during the recession and in addressing their longer-term goals? Do we need to adapt the ways we measure economic and social progress in order to take proper account of inequalities?

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-26

Employment and social developments in Europe 2013

ec.europa.eu/social/home.jsp?langId=en

This year’s report offers an in-depth and wide-ranging review of key labour market and social challenges facing the EU as it slowly emerges from recession. Where will Europe’s new jobs come from in an increasingly competitive global economy? Will active inclusion policies support help address rising levels of poverty among those of working age? Will the improvement in the position of women on the labour market during the crisis be sustained or slip away with the recovery? Is the divisive issue of undeclared work being effectively addressed? Will all Member States progress equally, or do the weakest risk falling further behind? Have national social security systems been effective and efficient in maintaining incomes during the recession and in addressing their longer-term goals? Do we need to adapt the ways we measure economic and social progress in order to take proper account of inequalities?

TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2014-03-26

Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain

Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain Objectives: Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides.Methodology: In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market.Results: The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros.Conclusions:The eco ...

Categoría:Crisis Económica
TipoComunicaciones/Informes/Artículos (individual)
Publicado en ODS2016-03-02