The objective of this resource guide is to strengthen the capacities of ILO constituents and development policy makers in the formulation of employment policies. There is a well-known proclivity among many policy-makers and practitioners to treat employment as a “residual” of economic growth. However, since the 2008 global financial and economic crisis, and the subsequent high rates of unemployment and underemployment in many countries, job creation has stepped to the forefront of policy priorities. As a result, renewed attention is being given to gender and labour market issues.The world has seen increasing levels of labour-force participation among women during the last 20 years; however, even in countries where women’s labour force participation has increased; the quality of employment has not necessarily improved. Women continue to be over-represented in precarious, atypical, and informal employment, particularlywhen compared to men’s patterns of employment. This is because women continue to face difficulties in having equitable access to productive employment opportunities, and while some progress has been achieved, the attainment of gender equality in the world of work remains a major challenge.There is ample evidence that improving women’s employment prospects can have not only positive effects on women’s economic empowerment, but engender broader economic and social benefits as well. Yet, gender concerns have not been fully integrated with mainstream policies. Hence, ...
Measuring employment precariousness in the European working conditions survey: The social distribution in Europeiospress.metapress.com/content/x276pvp181608518/
BACKGROUND: Precarious employment is becoming an increasingly important social determinant of health inequalities among workers. The way in which contemporary employment arrangements and their health consequences are addressed in empirical research is mostly based on the contract-related or employment instability dimension. A broader conceptual approach including various important characteristics of the degrading of employment conditions and relations is needed. OBJECTIVE: The general objective of this paper is to empirically test a new multidimensional construct for measuring precarious employment in an existing database. Special focus is on the social distribution of precarious employment. METHODS: A subsample of 21,415 participants in the EU-27 from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey-2005 was analysed. A cross-sectional study of the social distribution of precarious employment was conducted through the analysis of proportional differences according to gender, social class and credentials for the European Union as a whole and within each country. The 8 dimensions of the Employment Precariousness Construct were represented by 11 indicators. RESULTS: In general, women, workers without supervisory authority, those with fewer credentials, and those living in Eastern and Southern European countries suffer the highest levels of precarious employment. Exceptionally, men, workers with supervisory authority and those with the highest credentials suffer the highest le ...
Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a WHO collaborative cross-national study, has provided information about the health, well-being, social environment and health behaviour of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls for over 30 years. This latest international report from the study presents findings from the 2013/2014 survey, which collected data from almost 220 000 young people in 42 countries in Europe and North America. The data focus on social context (relations with family, peers and school), health outcomes (subjective health, injuries, obesity and mental health), health behaviours (patterns of eating, toothbrushing and physical activity) and risk behaviours (use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, sexual behaviour, fighting and bullying) relevant to young people’s health and well-being. New items on family and peer support, migration, cyberbullying and serious injuries are also reflected in the report.
Associations between non-discrimination and training policies and physicians' attitudes and knowledge about sexual and gender minority patients: a comparison of physicians from two hospitals
Background:Some physicians lack knowledge and awareness about health issues specific to sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals. To help improve this, hospitals have implemented policies that mandate non-discrimination and training to promote sexual and gender minority health. There is limited evidence about how such policies relate to physicians's knowledge, attitudes, and gender and sexual minority affirmative practices. Methods: A random sample of 1000 physicians was recruited from a complete list of physicians affiliated with one of two university Hospitals located in Tennessee and 180 physicians completed the survey concerning attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Physicians were affiliated with either Hospital A that had not implemented policies for non-discrimination and training, or Hospital B that did. Results: Physicians held different attitudes about SGM patients than non-patients. Physicians affiliated with Hospital A held more negative attitudes about SGM individuals who were non-patients than physicians affiliated with Hospital B. There were no differences between the two hospitals in physicians attitudes and knowledge about SGM patients. Conclusion: Policies that mandate non-discrimination and training as they currently exist may not improve physicians attitudes and knowledge about SGM individuals. Additional research is needed to understand how these policies and trainings relate to physicians SGM affirmative practices.